Wednesday, November 29, 2017

Eroticizing Consent

By Cordelia Anderson, MA & Sara Mulholland, M.Ed, LPC

The response to #MeToo, ever growing reports of sexual harassment, and other harmful sexual behaviors, often includes responses that indicate the accused chose to see their behaviors as consensual and mutually desirable. Historic, cultural, and current mass media messages that perpetuate norms of male privilege and sexual conquest make it challenging for those who value equitable relationships and who crave mutual pleasure.  In a society that values a system of deflecting responsibility for one’s behaviors or the impact those behaviors have on others, it is challenging to hang on the basic meaning of consent.  As David Brooks wrote in his November 2, 2017 NYT opinion piece, “…in the public mind the line between unwanted sexual attention and force is growing indistinguishable.”

Consent is not a new term.  We hear this term all the time in medical settings and research.  Consent in these areas ensures participants are fully informed so they know what they are agreeing to.  Additionally, they are aware of any risks or possible effects and the right to say no.  A minor (under age 18) cannot consent to participation in these treatments or activities on his/her own.  An adult who is incapacitated or in an altered mental state cannot consent to participate in these events either.  However, too often such expectations are not considered for consent to sexual activities. 

Why isn’t clearly getting and giving consent always considered to be erotic? Perhaps consent is perceived as interrupting the flow of passion in the moment. Perhaps consent sounds too tame or heteronormative.  A less visible yet probable factor is the notions of sex and erotic being commandeered by the pornography industry.

In a pornified culture, yesterday’s porn is today’s mainstream media. The pornography industry has fueled the increase in hyper-sexualized mass media.  The ease of access to today’s Internet pornography further packages women as sexual commodities and objects to be used by male consumers.  Additionally, the porn industry portrays pain and degradation as sexy. In a pornified culture, women are said to be worthwhile only if they are sexy, and sexy is determined by how much degradation and pain they can “take” sexually.  Alternatively, men’s masculinity is questioned if  they are not consumers who, “get it,” “take whatever they want” and “get off.” 

Without some very creative writing, signing consent documents is not likely to be a turn-on. So, how do we make sexual consent erotic? How do we make it a contingency for further action?  Beyond basic education about consent, there needs to be a change of individual and societal mental filters.  Sex is often portrayed as a performance or a trophy, creating a filter in which only a scoreboard matters, rather than considering a human being.  Society needs to see the exploitive use of sex and pornified distortions for what they are, so society can see the frequency of this leading to people being harmed or causing harm. True, informed consent, is not present when one person has the power and control over another.  Arguments such as:

they knew what was coming
they did it before
they’re making good money
they didn’t say no
 they look like they liked it well enough

are cognitive distortions and justifications for persons to feel better about neglecting to care about another's pleasure (or lack thereof), pain, or humiliation. See it.  Change the filter.

Getting and giving consent for a sexual relationship can and should be rewarding in and of itself. The process can be sensual and hot.  Developing meaningful relationships that flourish takes time. It takes time to learn each other’s likes, wants, and needs.  Discovering what each person desires and establishing boundaries paves the way to a depth of intimacy that brings unparalleled satisfaction. Being able to ask, “is this okay” or “would you like me to do [fill in the blank]” and respecting his/her answers heightens arousal by diminishing anxiety, allowing both partners to enjoy each moment.

Lessons tend to be very gendered as to the meaning of consent. Men learn to see consent as an event – hearing yes or no at the time of the desired activity.  Women learn to view consent as an ongoing process, often on a more emotional and intimate level. (Beres & MacDonald, 2015).  This disconnect can lead to misperceptions on what has or has not been agreed to – especially when any power differential or social norm is involved.

Listening is a big part of effective communications. In fact, Scott and Graves note selective listening often contributes to sexual coercion.  In these cases, the one who manipulates or forces only hears what s/he wants to hear – something supporting the desire for a sexual encounter – and ignores anything negating the desired activity.  Sometimes these issues lead to the one who does the harm attempting to make the one harmed believe s/he did consent, when this was not the case.  This is just another example of someone using a power or privilege to harm another human being, then blaming those victimized instead of taking responsibility.

It would be much easier if no one ever wanted sex with anyone who didn’t fully agree to sex with them. However, when power over others is considered a turn on rather than honestly and fully being desired by the other person, the potential erotica of consent gets lost. According to the Merriam-Webster online site, the term “erotic” is among the top 20% of searched words.  This site gives the definition of erotic as simply “devoting to, or tending to arouse sexual love or desire” or “strongly marked or affected by sexual desire.” (2017).  

Having a meaningful connection with another human being fills the most basic desires of the human heart: being included, affirmed, chosen, blessed, safe, heard/understood, and touched. (Laaser & Laaser, 2008).  When seeking erotic consent in your relationships, consider the following acronym: Caring and compassionate connection, Overtly attending to each other’s needs and desires, Never negating each other’s limits, Sensual/mutually satisfying and sexy, Effort – putting in the work to make sure all is well and enjoying the moment, Nibbling away at uncertainty, Timely communication.

When these are present, the relationship is richly erotic.


Anderson, C. (2017). The Impact of Pornography on Children, Youth, and Culture. Holyoke,       MA: NEARI Press.

Beres, Melanie & MacDonald, Jo. (2015). Talking about sexual consent: Heterosexual women     and BDSM. Australian Feminist Studies (30)86; 418-432.

Brooks, D. (2017, November 2). Lovers, Prospectors and Predators. New York Times. Retrieved November 15, 2017, from

Erotic. 2017. In Retrieved 12 November 2017 from 

Laaser, Mark & Laaser, Debra. (2008). The Seven Desires of Every Heart. Grand Rapis, MI:        Zondervan.

Scott, Katie & Graves, Clint. (2017). Sexual violence, consent, and contradictions: A call for communication scholars to impact sexual violence prevention. Pursuit: The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee. (8)1; 159-174.

Thursday, November 23, 2017

The Importance of “User Voices”

By Alissa Ackerman, PhD, David Prescott, LICSW, & Kieran McCartan, PhD

In the tech world, product testing is a must. To make sure a product provides a great experience for potential users and clients, it is essential that the product be tested throughout various stages of development. A company that releases a product that does not reflect customer needs will lose those customers. Likewise, restaurants that don’t solicit feedback from diners won’t stay in business long.

You may be wondering what this has to do with the Sexual Abuse blog; a lot actually! As we reconceptualize sexual harm/abuse from being a criminal justice issue to a joint public health/health/criminal justice issue, the idea of the service user becomes essential. You would never be able to do health research or development with only the practitioners, stakeholders and any research with service users being process, not outcome, driven; which is what we do in the sexual abuse/harm field. We need to understand the service user (both those who have been sexually harmed and those who have caused sexual harm) and make them part of the research process in order to develop a fully rounded service. At the 2017 ATSA Conference in Kansas City, Missouri, we heard from keynote speaker Patty Wetterling about the original impetus for the Jacob Wetterling Act and other modern sex crimes policies. Most readers would agree with Patty that these laws were created with the best of intentions. However, research has shown that the outcomes of current SORN are not the panacea we imagined them to be. We know this, as do most people who perform even a cursory Google search. More than anyone, individuals on the registry know it.

Individuals on public registries, their family members, and those who have experienced sexual victimization have an important role as “users”.  There has been some research that has incorporated the live experiences of individuals and their family members who are impacted by SORN (see Lisa Sample’s work). Most of this work has illuminated the difficulties inherent in community reintegration, as well as finding and maintaining stable employment, housing, and prosocial relationships; which is why outside of the USA any countries that have registers do not publically notify communities. The reality of the register is about “bait and switch”, it is about focusing on known offenders, who are less likely to reoffend, rather than helping victims or supporting prevention.   Conversely, there has been only one published study to date addressing the impact of SORN on those who have been sexually harmed (Bandy, 2015). This study found that individuals who have experienced sexual victimization see little reflection of themselves or their experiences in policies that were created with specific types of victims – namely children who were sexually violated and murdered by strangers – in mind. This has made it difficult for individuals who have experienced sexual trauma to seek help and support because their experiences were not like the cases memorialized in law. In addition, the white elephant in the sexual harm room is the fact that perpetrators can, not all we may add, experience Adverse Childhood Experiences (including, physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, etc.) which may contribute to their perpetration of abuse later in life; which means that victims get penalized twice.

User voices are integral to public policy, but sex crimes policy has negated, and in many ways silenced the voices of those most in need of a voice – namely individuals who have been impacted by sexual harm. Autoethnography is a qualitative methodology whereby the researcher uses the self as the research subject.  As a research method, scholars use their individual experiences to understand a particular phenomenon.  In the academic realm, autoethnography has been utilized by historically marginalized people: people of color, gender non-conforming people, and others whose individual voices have been silenced. This method allows for the experiences of marginalized and otherwise silenced constituents to use their experiences and voices as the subject of analytic research. Perhaps one paradigm best known for autoethnographic work is convict criminology, where individuals who are incarcerated or formerly incarcerated use their experiences to further our understanding of the field.

The authors have worked in the areas related to the service-user’s voice. Kieran and David will be joining Danielle Harris to present data in this area at the ANZATSA conference in Auckland next week. David has published extensively in and outside of ATSA on the importance of routinely soliciting the feedback of those participating in treatment programs. At the 2017 ATSA conference, Alissa co-presented a collaborative autoethnography. In the paper, Alissa and her co-author Alexa Sardina discuss the analysis of their lived experiences as survivors of sexual violence and their independent paths to becoming sex crimes researchers. Although autoethnographic work may be criticized for a lack of objectivity, generalizability, and validity it reminds us that we are personally connected to our research. Alissa and Alexa conclude that despite being trained to be objective and unbiased, their personal experiences absolutely impact their understanding of sexual violence and sex crimes policy. Further, they articulate the importance of honoring both the professional expertise and the personal experience they bring to the table. The merging of both voices offers access to people who might otherwise dismiss either of us as “just a survivor” or an “out of touch academic”. 

This is particularly timely given much of the recent discourse on prominent figures being publicly accused of sexual transgressions. Last week we published a blog piece on the importance of honoring authentic apologies. The piece garnered landmark readership with some applauding our stance and others (via social media and in trainings) articulating the need to “take sides”. As someone who is a survivor of sexual violence, who has an established career as a sex crimes researcher, and a person who works directly with individuals who have sexually offended, Alissa argues that there are no “sides”. David and Kieran have said as much in writings and trainings. Indeed, those who perpetrate sexual violence themselves have higher rates of sexual victimization and other adverse experiences in their backgrounds.

The prevention of sexual abuse requires a multi-faceted approach that encompasses victim advocates, treatment providers, researchers, individuals who have sexually harmed, and individuals who have been sexually harmed. Prevention takes a village. To privilege one group of voices over others silences groups that could have important insight. People who use autoethnography must ask themselves whether their story is useful and how might others use their story in a useful way. Alissa believes that her experiences are useful for the field – David and Kieran agree that telling of these experiences is crucial to healing at all levels of society.

At the front lines of treatment and policy, it is clear that including the service-user’s voice can improve services, identify methods that aren’t working, and produce ideas for innovation. However, we need to be brave in engaging the service user voice as it may be seen as inappropriate, useful, biased and divisive by some groups (including, policy makers). Businesses in the tech world and restaurant industry know that once you respond to a customer’s feedback, you very often have a customer for life. It’s time for deeper listening to all who are involved these services. 

Thursday, November 16, 2017

The promise and importance of apology: The need for apologies to be heard and not dismissed.

By Alissa Ackerman, PhD, David Prescott, LICSW, & Kieran McCartan, PhD

Will an authentic apology ever be enough? This is a question we asked ourselves this week in the wake of Louis C.K.’s apology to the women he masturbated in front of. Last Friday, the comedian responded to a report in the New York Times where five women told their stories about his behavior with a written apology which can be read in full here.

In his statement, he acknowledged that what he did was wrong. More importantly, he explained that he justified his behavior because he did not fully understand that his behavior was a real predicament for these five women. He did not fully recognize the power differential he maintained. With this statement he is accepting responsibility for his actions.

Several outlets have published pieces chastising the apology. One in particular that has made rounds on social media can be read here. The piece admonishes Louis C.K. by rewriting the apology to make it, as they say, a real apology. It is true that he does not actually use the words “I am sorry”, but we argue that his admission and acknowledgement is a step toward healing, reconciliation, and transformation. Indeed, people who have experienced sexual abuse are frequently highly sensitive to the language of apologies and can spot insincerity quickly. While the critiques of C.K.s apology raise important points (and the apology doubtless went through several rounds of editing), apology is still an interpersonal process that cannot be meaningfully dictated by outsiders.

Most individuals who experience sexual victimization and/or harassment agree that an apology – an acknowledgement that what happened to them was wrong - is an important step in the healing process. These individuals rarely receive an apology. Perhaps one reason that apologies are hard to come by is that when they are given they are perceived as inauthentic or not good enough. At the same time, sensitivity is required; an apology should never be written in a way that compels the person harmed to accept it or forgive before they are ready.

The Louis C.K. apology offers a teachable moment for anyone who has ever committed a harmful sexual act. It shows that it can be done and it can be powerful. It takes courage to own up to harmful behavior, but doing so offers a space for authentic connection. It is unfortunate that what appears to be a meaningful apology is met with judgement and admonishment – the very things that lead to disconnection. Professionals working with people who have abused often observe that these individuals often have intense trouble expressing their thoughts as eloquently as they and others would like. Sometimes this is due to intellectual and other learning disabilities. At other times it can be due to shame and self-hatred as a result of their actions. In the end, it is the dialog that is the most important.

In previous posts (link them here) we have written about restorative justice and how it might be beneficial in cases involving sexual harm. Restorative justice (RJ) is a framework that focuses on repairing the harm that was caused. The most typical RJ practice, victim-offender mediation, puts the person who caused harm and the person who was harmed in the same room. This can be daunting for survivors of sexual violence, which has made RJ inaccessible in most cases of sexual harm.

Professionals have not made their minds up as to whether RJ is useful in cases of sexual violence, as many believe it can cause secondary trauma for the survivor or allows the individual who offended to relive and “enjoy” the abusive incident(s). Acknowledging that, it is important to remember that in most cases both the individual who caused harm and the one who was harmed will come into contact with each other at some point in the future, as over 80% of sexual abuse cases involve people known to one another. When RJ is used in cases of sexual violence, (i.e. in CoSAs) an apology – usually written and passed via a third party – can be seen as lacking legitimacy. We end up with a challenging paradox of wanting heartfelt and freely given apologies, but do not fully engage in processes that enable this to happen.

If done correctly, one positive outcome of RJ type sessions is the insight gained by the individual who causes harm. RJ can help people understand the impacts of their actions and their offending behavior. It can also help survivors gain an understanding of why they were victimized. For RJ to begin to be effective, the individual who caused harm must admit to their offense(s) and must offer an apology.

It is easy to point fingers at celebrities about which we know little. It is easy to unleash our collective rage at these public figures. However, this outrage does not and will not end sexual violence because most people who act in sexually inappropriate ways do not fully understand that their behavior is harmful.

Louis C.K. is a prime example of this. He justified his behavior and believed that it was acceptable because he asked the women before he masturbated in front of him. He did not understand the impact of his behavior until much later. This in no way excuses his actions, but it provides a framework for understanding the mindsets of many people who act in sexually inappropriate ways.

Each of us has been affected by sexual abuse in one way or another. One of the authors, Alissa, is a survivor of sexual violence and participates in restorative justice type sessions with men in community based treatment for sex crimes. To date she has shared her story with close to 200 men, answering their questions about the impacts of sexual victimization and asking them questions about their offenses. She writes: “What I have learned in this work is that approaching individuals with authentic curiosity and non-judgement allows for connection and understanding that would not occur if I showed up with anger… I’ve learned that many of these men have very little understanding of how their actions have impacted the lives of the individuals they’ve harmed. The behavior itself and the harm it causes becomes abstract until a survivor is sitting in front of them outlining in detail how sexual trauma has changed her life. Then they get it.”

Perhaps one way for powerful people to better understand the impacts of the harm they cause when the engage in sexual harassment, sexual assault, or rape is for them to stop talking and start listening. Louis C.K. ends his statement by saying, “I will now step back and take a long time to listen.”

If he, and others in shoes like his, are willing to listen, maybe it is time for us to speak in open, honest, authentic conversations. Instead of pointing fingers, reacting in anger, judging with disgust, we should embrace dialogue and honor that just because someone should have known that their behavior was wrong and harmful, doesn’t mean they actually knew it. Perhaps that starts with an apology and the willingness to listen.

Friday, November 10, 2017

Conflation & misunderstanding: The problem of using language inappropriately

By Kieran McCartan, PhD, David Prescott, LICSW, & Alissa Ackerman, PhD

All too often, media and societal discussions about sexual abuse and harassment focus exclusively on the offence in general and often graphic terms and the related definitions linked to that offence, rather than taking a broader yet nonetheless realistic view of the individual (which is what comprehensive risk formulation, treatment, and community management focus on). Labelling people by offence makes for accessible media coverage, but is problematic in terms of understanding those who cause harm. After all, developing an understanding of the mechanisms of abuse is vital to prevention, rehabilitation, and reintegration (and something that we have discussed before on the blog).

As such, there has been a growing movement around the use of person-first language in describing people who commit sexual harm. That is, rather than stopping at terms such as “sex offender”, many of us have said for years that we should be referring to those who have sexually abused as exactly that: people who have sexually abused. In other words, by labelling behaviour and not people, society can better understand and prevent abuse and harassment. The accurate use of language matters; terminology used inappropriately or out of context it can be damaging, not only in terms of how we work with individuals who have committed sexual harm but also in terms of how we as a society and as individuals come to terms with the many issues involved.   

There are a multitude of ways to describe sexual abuse and harassment; this can be highly problematic. A recent example of this is actor Kevin Spacey’s statement about his sexual advances towards a 14-year-old when Spacey was 24. These actions involved a ten-year age gap and crossing the age of sexual consent barrier, as well as a host of social norms/conventions. Spacey, in discussing the case, referred to himself as being gay in an apparent attempt to draw attention away from the illegal nature of his behaviour, but it conflated the issue. His statement reinforced the mistaken idea that paedophilia is linked to homosexuality, which is not the case on two fronts.

First, paedophilia is not meaningfully linked to homosexuality any more than it is to heterosexuality. An attraction to one gender or another doesn’t define a person as paedophilic (which involves a sexual attraction to children). Second, being sexually attracted to a 14-year-old does not make someone paedophilic, as that term describes someone who is sexually attracted to pre-pubescent children. A person with a sexual interest in pubescent or post-pubescent children generally is often referred to as hebephilic, although the exact definitions are controversial and the subject of considerable scholarly debate. While it might be argued that this is a case of semantics, it’s not! Finally, it is extremely important to note that the act of having sex with someone too young to provide legal consent is itself not the same thing as an entrenched sexual interest in children or pubescent individuals. Behavior is not necessarily the same as a true pattern of sexual interest and arousal.

As more complaints and issues arise, we will start to see that Kevin Spacey (like Jimmy Saville and others) does not exhibit the traits necessary for a diagnosis of hebephilia or paedophilia. Rather his actions may be related to other motivations. In other words, his motivation may well be the act and not the type of victim. At a societal level, we have started to discuss the issue from the wrong perspective. It has never been more important to separate fact from fiction, and science from the apparent science fiction that makes up too much of public discourse.

We need to report and discuss sexual abuse, harassment, and victimisation using the correct terminology so that individuals who commit sexual harm and those who experience it get the necessary response that helps them; mislabelling can cause negative personal and social responses. The reality is that individuals who sexually offend have differing aetiologies. They need different degrees of support in treatment, have different types of cognitive distortions/barriers, need different interventions and face different challenges reintegration (i.e. accommodation, employment, etc); therefore, it is essential that we all understand what we are talking about, use the same language and consider the individual as the defining factor, not their offence.

Thursday, November 2, 2017

ATSA Annual Conference 2017

By Kieran McCartan, PhD, David Prescott, LICSW, & Alissa Ackerman, PhD

The annual ATSA conference took place from the 25TH – 28TH of October in Kansas City. The conference was a real mix of research, practice and engagement with international colleagues from countries including the USA, Canada, UK,  Australia, New Zealand, Sweden, Germany, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Belgium and Israel to name a few. In this blog we are going to take you on a whistle stop tour of the event.

The two of plenary sessions that bookended the conference addressed the challenges of the work that we do in preventing and responding to sexual harm. Patty Wetterling opened the conference with a very emotive and personal narrative about her story and experiences. Maia Christopher, Pamela Mejia and Nicole Pittman closed the conference with a debate on how we engage with the media and the public around sexual harm. These two plenaries highlighted how far we have come and how much we still have to do. They provided a positive message and a timely reminder.

ATSA 2017 kicked off with another public engagement event prior to the start of the conference.  It was hosted by the Kauffman centre in Kansas City and had speakers discussing the myths around sexual perpetration (Kieran McCartan, UWE), the reality of sex offender treatment (Michael Miner, University of Minnesota), the challenges of working with juveniles that sexual harm (Rene McCreary, Metropolitan Organization to Counter Sexual Assault) and the reality as well as impact of registration and disclosure (Seth Wescott, Clinical Associates). After the presentations there was a great question & answer session that reinforced the importance of the event and the topics discussed. Also this year we had the first ATSA gives back event where by ATSA members volunteered in the community with organisations that support victims of sexual harm, this year it was with Sunflower House.

Kieran attended an international roundtable on risk management which included speakers from 9 countries, including, UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Belgium, Italy, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands. The roundtable was well attended, highlighting the similarities and differences in sex offender management internationally, reinforcing the need to greater knowledge exchange and professional collaboration. This reflected the core theme of the conference, balance, and reinforced the range of topics covered in the pre-conferences and main workshops, including topics like, the broad spectrum of people who commit sexual harm (adults, adolescence, people with learning difficulties and mental illnesses), different types of therapy (group therapy, one-one one sessions), risk management, community reintegration, risk assessment, desistence, RNR/Good Lives, sex offender policy and media engagement.

The notion of balance reinforced the importance of knowledge exchange and professional collaborations which includes the recognition that user voices are key to preventing sexual abuse and reducing harm when victimization does occur. This was the biggest take away for Alissa as she reflected on the ATSA conference. She collaborated and co-presented on four talks that drove home the importance of knowledge exchange that transcends academic and clinical knowledge.

These presentations included: 1) voices of individuals who have sexually harmed who continually live in fear (with Danielle Harris and Jill Levenson); 2) “Survivor Scholars” who utilize their personal experiences and professional expertise to impact policy and prevention efforts (with Alexa Sardina); 3) effectively using vicarious restorative justice to help individuals who have sexually harmed and individuals who have experienced sexual harm to gain empathy, insight, and a common humanity (with Jill Levenson), and 4) Using professional expertise to answer questions from the general public in a way that is accessible and meaningful (with Danielle Harris, Gwen Willis, and Jill Levenson).

David found himself involved in five presentations, of which four were collaborations with others: Gwen Willis, Jill Levenson, Robin Wilson, Marshalee McQueen, Erin Bresee, Liam Ennis, Laurie Rose Kepros, and Kevin Nunes. Likewise, AUDIOphilia was back, having performed at virtually all the opening night receptions in 2004. On this occasion, the band featured, Robin Wilson, Liam Ennis, Kevin Nunes, Andrew Harris, Tony Beech and David Prescott.This is particularly salient in respect to Tony Beech as he is retiring and ATSA 2017 will be one of his last academic appearances; Tony has been central to the sexual abuse research community across his career and will be missed.  As a membership organization, ATSA has its very roots in collaboration, dating back to the 1980s when researchers and practitioners first assembled to share their perspectives, resources, and ideas.

The primary take-away from these experiences for all of us is the importance of working together towards common goals… “creating balance” as the conference theme described it. The ATSA conference, and the ability of so many people to come together, is an excellent illustration of the saying, “Alone, I travel faster; together we travel further.” Some of the themes in these presentations included the role of certainty and uncertainty in assessment, treatment, and legal proceedings; applications of motivational interviewing and the good lives model; and new perspectives and approaches in trauma-informed care.

In the end, we are all at our best when we can discuss the issues of the day, acknowledge differences, come together to establish new ideas and goals, and make them happen; next year its Vancouver, Canada!!

Wednesday, November 1, 2017

A changing of the guard...

Dear Blog readers,

We have recently had some changes here at the Sexual Abuse Blog with Jon Brandt stepping down from active blogging. Myself and David would like to take this opportunity to thank Jon for all his hard work on the blog over the last number of years. Jon's blogs have always been insightful, critical and pertinent. We wish him luck for the future and will always positively receive any future blogs that he would like to submit. So farewell, rather than goodbye!

We would like to take this opportunity to welcome a new blogger joining our team, Dr Alissa Ackerman (Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, California State University, Fullerton). Alissa research's sex offender policy, management, sexual violence prevention and restorative as well as transformative justice with sex offenders. Myself and David are looking forward to blogging with Alissa and looking forward to the new perspective that she will bring to the team.

We have a blog on the recent ATSA conference coming later this week and some interesting as well as diverse blogs in the pipeline.

Talk soon,

Kieran, David and Alissa.